# When Mathematicians Write Perl

As a followup (of sorts) to my last post, I give you the following:

 ```1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 ``` ```sub Derivative1 { my (\$x,\$y)=@_; my @y2; my \$n=\$#{\$x}; \$y2[0]=(\$y->[1]-\$y->[0])/(\$x->[1]-\$x->[0]); \$y2[\$n]=(\$y->[\$n]-\$y->[\$n-1])/(\$x->[\$n]-\$x->[\$n-1]); my \$i; for(\$i=1; \$i<\$n; \$i++) { \$y2[\$i]=(\$y->[\$i+1]-\$y->[\$i-1])/(\$x->[\$i+1]-\$x->[\$i-1]); } return @y2; } ```

That code is correct, right? I sure hope so, because man do I not want to grovel over that and figure out what the hell it is doing.

This glorious manifestation of the human intellect comes from Math::Derivative, a Perl module which, well, does what it says on the tin: it provides functions that compute first and second derivatives of matrices of points. The excerpt above is the first derivative function; the second derivative function is just like that, except more so.

To start out I should mention that it consistently provides plausible results (I’m using it in code that tries to detect sudden changes in rate of change of numeric metrics over time, i.e. “call for help if the database starts bloating up”), but the style, oh, where to start?

• Um, whitespace? Ever? Between lines? Between characters? It’s like reading someone’s JavaScript after it’s been through JSMin or some such. Especially since Perl is tolerant of inserting newlines for clarity, there’s no excuse.
• The variable names. Yes, I know, it’s basically translating from the formula, but the combination of the one-character names with the one-character (or multi-character) sigils - seriously, `\$n=\$#{\$x}`, I never want to see you again - is a recipe for headache. Oh, and also you have to play detective to figure out what kind of data each variable represents? Was it immediately obvious to you that the `\$x` and `\$y` that get passed into the subroutine are references to arrays of scalar values? Yeah, it’s clear in retrospect, but the principle of least astonishment is not just for user interfaces.
• The mishmash of operators. Considering the previous two points, the similarity between the `-` operator (in this case numerical subtraction) and the `->` operator (dereference) and the `>` operator (numerical greater-than) makes the code look eerily like a QR code or a random-dot stereogram.

And so forth. There’s no good reason why this code has to be so obscure; sure, it’s written in an older idiom, but even then it was terrible. One thing at least the author can be proud of: the version of this module on CPAN is 0.01, written in 1995.

Apparently mathematicians get it right the first time. :)